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It was a very popular story, and is also found in Javanese, Sundanese, Acehnese and Makassar versions. The colophon of , which states that the work was translated by Nuruddin ibn Ali in the state of Reman on 9 Rabiulawal 1224 (24 April 1809). The use of the superscript abbreviation , ‘May God be pleased with him’, following the names of the Prophet’s companions, is not common in Malay manuscripts.

At least 24 Malay manuscripts of this work are known to be held in collections in Indonesia and Europe, copied in locations ranging from Batavia to Singapore, and including another copy in the British Library which was copied in Semarang in Java in 1797 (Or. The most unusual feature, though, is that rubricated words have been written in red ink above a pencil outline. 16128 followed the same pattern of rubrication as its source text, and that while writing the scribe used pencil to indicate words to be rubricated, and then later overwrote the pencilled outlines in red ink.

Script developed independently at least four times in human history in Mesopotamia, Egypt, India, lowland Mesoamerica, and China.

The earliest forms of written communication originated in Sumer, located in southern Mesopotamia about 3500-3000 BCE.

Rajabi Abdul Razak, from the International Islamic University of Malaysia, who visited the British Library in 2012 to study the inks used in Malay manuscripts, with ATG. Further reading: Edi Wijaya, Hikayat Raja Handak koleksi Von de Wall: perbandingan alur naskah W 88 dan W 91.

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This manuscript is also written in a small neat hand with a ‘modern’ feel, but in this case modern influences are clearly manifest in the use of certain punctuation elements such as brackets and numbered points within the text, indicating a date of production in the 20th century and perhaps even suggesting that the manuscript might have been copied from a printed source. 1v-2r A general inference can be made on palaeographical grounds that both these manuscripts are modern copies of older sources, and have reproduced verbatim the colophons in the original texts, although this assertion has not been proved scientifically.

Opening pages of the text by Imām Aḥmad on the , with brackets around the rubricated words on the left-hand page. Both manuscripts are written on cream laid paper with vertical chainlines but with no visible watermark, and so it has not been possible to use features of the paper to date the manuscripts.

Literacy is thought to have first emerged with the development of numeracy and computational devices as early as 8,000 BCE.This means that uniquely in Patani, Malay manuscripts written in Jawi have been produced until recently, including, for example, some elaborately decorated hand-written copies of the text , ‘The development of Patani and the descent of its rulers’.PNM MSS 3632, reproduced courtesy of the National Library of Malaysia. 16128 is dated 9 Rabiulawal 1224 (24 April 1809) in the state of Reman (or Raman), which is one of the principalities of Patani, but it is likely that this date refers to the completion of an earlier source rather than that of the present manuscript.16128, but the results were not conclusive for dating purposes. Despite the wide popularity of the story , no other copies are known from the northern Malay peninsula, and it is thus thanks to Or.16128 that we know that this story was part of the literary heritage of Patani in the early 19th century. Jakarta: Fakultas Ilmu Pengetahuan Budaya, Universitas Indonesia, 2008.

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The modern term's meaning has been expanded to include the ability to use language, numbers, images, computers, and other basic means to understand, communicate, gain useful knowledge and use the dominant symbol systems of a culture.